|Product developers have a variety of options to enhance the satiety effect of beverages.|
“It is widely believed that the worldwide obesity epidemic is being caused by an imbalance between energy intake,” said Cathy Dorko, product manager for active nutrition at DuPont Nutrition & Health, New Century, Kas. “Energy intake is largely determined by satiety — the condition of being full or satisfied. What the world needs is more sources of affordable, nutritous foods that are satiating.”
Lorraine Niba, global director of nutrition for Ingredion Inc., Westchester, Ill., said, “According to research from Gallup’s satiety survey and Ingredion’s proprietary research, over 33% of American consumers are aware of the concept of satiety, and 45% to 55% are aware of foods and beverages that help them feel full for longer. There is clear indication from American consumers that satiety and hunger management are a key component of their weight management efforts.”
At a technical session entitled “Satiety: Fundamentals and recent advances” at the recent Institute of Food Technologists’ (I.F.T.) 2014 annual meeting and food exposition, held this past June in New Orleans, Susann Bellmann, a study director in the field of gastrointestinal research at the Dutch Institute for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) in The Netherlands, said that to promote a healthy lifestyle and counteract being overweight it is of interest to regulate appetite and to develop products that decrease the desire to eat.
She explained that appetite regulation mechanisms are various and summarized in several publications. Among others, gastric distension, rate and compound selective emptying, and subsequently the secretion of appetite regulating hormones are related to feelings of fullness and satiety. TNO has developed an in vitro screening technology for the prediction of satiating properties of foods. This will allow a quicker evaluation and targeted selection of satiety-promoting foods or ingredients.
Proteins are likely the most popular satiety-inducing ingredient today, as not only does protein exert the appetite regulation mechanisms, it also is correlated to lean muscle building and maintenance. Select fiber ingredients have been shown to regulate appetite as well.
Diet beverages typically rely on high-intensity sweeteners to replace sweetening carbohydrates such as sugar and corn syrup. There are various other carbohydrates, mostly isolated fibers, which may assist with keeping calories down.
At the SupplySide West Expo this past November, Ingredion introduced a whole grain-based weight management system shown in clinical studies to suppress hunger.
“This naturally based, gluten-free weight management solution allows formulators to create a range of on-trend weight management products that assist with calorie reduction,” Ms. Niba said. “The new product has been shown to work well in low-moisture baked goods, such as bars, as well as soups and smoothies.”
Joseph O’Neill, president and general manager of Beneo Inc., Morris Plains, N.J., said that “Considering the frightening increase of obesity and diabetes prevalent in the U.S., it is time the food industry adapts new formulation approaches and makes smart carbohydrate ingredient choices to produce foods and beverages that address these epidemics. The key to a sustainable and healthy weight is to keep the balance between calorie intake and energy output. Smart carbohydrate ingredients can assist.”
Specialty carbohydrates and prebiotic fibers may help formulators address weight management from a smart energy management perspective. Beneo’s prebiotic fibers — inulin and oligofructose, both derived from chicory root — as well as isomalt and isomaltulose, which are derived from sugar beets, are technical solutions for fiber-enhanced and sugar-reduced beverages.
“Isomalt, in particular, makes sense for weight-management beverages,” Mr. O’Neill said. “It has a sugar-like taste but at the same time is tooth-friendly, low glycemic and provides only half the calories of sugar.
“Isomaltulose optimizes the use of energy. It provides full carbohydrate energy over a longer period of time, in a balanced way, resulting in a low-glycemic effect.”
Studies have shown that isomaltulose aids the body to burn fat more effectively as an energy source when under physical activity. As a result, it helps save carbohydrate storage, which leads to prolonged energy. This is an appealing benefit when choosing calories wisely for weight loss and management.
Scott Turowski, technical sales manager, Sensus America Inc., Lawrenceville, N.J., said emerging clinical research suggests chicory root fiber may lead to an overall reduction in calorie intake.
“It can help you eat less,” he said. “Inulin is a prebiotic soluble fiber and is known to provide a feeling of fullness. Its neutral, slightly sweet taste can strengthen the sweetness of high-intensity sweeteners while masking any aftertaste. It makes for an ideal sugar replacement in low-calorie beverages.”
Isomalto-oligosaccharide (I.M.O.) is another ingredient with weight management properties.
“We describe I.M.O. as having ‘three-in-one’ functions,” said Lindsay Sutton, vice-president of marketing and sales for BioNeutra North America Inc., Edmonton, Alta. “It is a soluble dietary fiber, a prebiotic and a low-calorie sweetener. It has about 60% the sweetening power of sucrose, providing only two calories per gram.
“The raw material used to manufacture I.M.O. is starch, which can be derived from different cereal crops, including barley, cassava, corn, oats, potato, pulses, rice, tapioca and wheat. We use a patented, highly controlled enzyme-catalyzed process to transform the starch molecules into branched-chain molecules consisting of four to seven units of glucose that contain a series of alpha-(1-6) bonds. These bonds are poorly digested by humans, and thus deliver fewer calories while also providing fiber-like health benefits.”
The ingredient is generally recognized as safe in the United States.
Another popular fiber option is polydextrose, a highly branched polymer of glucose.
“Its unique arrangement of glycosidic linkages makes it resistant to hydrolysis by human digestive enzymes, therefore following ingestion it passes intact into the colon where it is partially fermented by the colonic microflora,” Ms. Dorko said. “By doing so, it contributes just one calorie per gram. So in weight management beverages, not only does it keep calorie content low, it also provides satiety.”
In four human clinical studies, polydextrose was shown to enhance satiety, thereby reducing subsequent energy intake. Concluding from these studies, the minimum quantity needed to achieve the enhancement of satiety and the reduction of energy intake is 6.25 grams.
“The satiating effect of polydextrose represents an opportunity for beverage manufacturers to create new, reduced-calorie products or to reformulate existing products, to make them more satisfying and beneficial to calorie-conscious consumers and those seeking to actively manage their weight,” Ms. Dorko said. “We also offer a non-digestible polysaccharide fiber obtained from the soybean cotyledon. It provides a unique blend of about 62% to 70% insoluble fiber and 5% to 9% soluble fiber.
“Scientific evidence suggests that it may play a role in glucose attenuation and blood glucose regulation. Incorporation of soy fiber can lower the glycemic index of a beverage, when compared to the same product without soy fiber, thus offering potential satiety and weight management benefits.”
The power of protein
Dairy proteins, in particular whey, have driven weight management product development efforts in recent years because of their clean, neutral flavor profile and versatility. Suppliers also have developed versions with increased solubility and clarity for use in beverages.
At the I.F.T., many suppliers showcased dairy protein-enhanced beverages, sometimes in combination with plant proteins. For example, Archer Daniels Midland Co., Decatur, Ill., introduced soy-based isolates for beverage applications. The soy proteins are designed to partially replace dairy proteins in low and neutral pH applications, resulting in a combined dairy and soy protein beverage with a clean flavor profile at lower cost and a more stable price. The company sampled a vanilla-flavored protein beverage where half of the protein came from isolated soy protein and the other half from milk protein isolate.
Soy remains the most common plant protein source. However, other proteins are finding their way into beverages. For example, Tate & Lyle, Hoffman Estates, Ill., introduced an oat protein ingredient made from imported non-bioengineered Swedish oats at the I.F.T. The company uses a patented process without the use of solvents to extract the protein component of oat bran.
“It is a highly digestible vegan protein that is about 55% protein,” said Megan Mullinix, sales manager of oat ingredients. “It is also a source of 2% oat beta glucan soluble fiber.”
The new ingredient is currently the only commercially available oat protein in the marketplace.
“It works great in beverages that have some viscosity, because even though it is clear in solution, it does contribute some mouthfeel,” she said.
There’s also a new animal protein option in the marketplace. International Dehydrated Foods Inc., Springfield, Mo., markets a high-protein powder ingredient sourced from chicken.
“It is a highly digestible, complete protein with a flavor-neutral profile without any bitter or lingering aftertaste, as compared to competitive protein ingredients such as soy and whey,” said Stephanie Lynch, vice-president of sales and marketing for International Dehydrated Foods. “Also unlike soy and whey, this protein ingredient supports an allergen-free claim.”
The protein is ideally suited for weight-management type beverages, both ready-to-drink and powdered mixes.
Beyond fiber and protein
In addition to fiber and protein, there are several other ingredients associated with weight management. For example, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a catechin found in green tea, has been shown to promote weight loss by increasing the amount of energy the body uses and by making it easier for the body to use excess body fat.
An extract from the South Asian fruit Garcinia cambogia also has been shown to support healthy body weight. The natural extract contains hydroxycitric acid (H.C.A.), which has been shown to suppress appetite as well as decrease fat production by the body.
DSM Nutritional Products, Parsippany, N.J., offers a patented and natural lipid emulsion consisting of droplets of palm oil coated with oat oil. Because of its composition, it is not digested as quickly as normal fat, and as a result, reaches the ileum (small intestine) relatively intact. Undigested fat triggers a specific site for satiety within the ileum, telling the brain through the release of a hormone (GLP-1) that the body is comfortably satisfied. This signaling mechanism, also called the ileal brake, causes satiety and a person tends to eat less.
“The fat from this ingredient is digested normally further on in the ileum,” said Caroline Brons, director of marketing for DSM. “A wide range of peer-reviewed, published clinical studies, as well as mechanism-of-action and dose-response studies in normal weight, overweight and obese individuals, support its effect in appetite control and reduced-calorie intake.
Labeled simply as “palm oil, oat oil,” the ingredient has been used in a variety of weight management prototypes, typically nutrition shakes and powdered beverages.
“Weight management is a global issue with huge implications for quality of life, health care costs and productivity,” Ms. Brons said. “Successful weight management depends on small but consistent lifestyle changes, supported by good eating and drinking habits. Beverages can be formulated to assist consumers with their goals.”