Whole grain breads
Vitamin D2 rich baker's yeast in bread may help people reach their Recommended Dietary Allowance of vitamin D.

Vitamin D internationally

While the report from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee said Americans need to consume more vitamin D, international markets may offer opportunities as well.

MarketsandMarkets, Dallas, projects a compound annual growth rate of 11% for the vitamin D market, allowing it to reach $2.5 billion globally by 2020. Emerging markets such as Brazil, India and China are paving new opportunities for the vitamin D market, according to MarketsandMarkets.

Last year the European Food Safety Authority issued a positive opinion on the use of vitamin D2 rich baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in yeast-leavened bread, rolls, fine bakery wares and food supplements. Montreal-based Lallemand offers such yeast. A study published this year in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found fortification of wheat flour with 10 micrograms of vitamin D per 100 grams of flour was more effective than the fortification of milk or the fortification of both flour and milk.

Vitamin D also may be added to grain-based foods through a powder premix blend or an oil-based liquid blend, Dr. Hazen said.

“Factors like moisture content and pH can play a major role in the stability of vitamins being added to these products,” he said. “Also the processing conditions after addition and final packaging should all be considered when selecting the levels of fortification.”

People also may need to consume more vitamin E and choline.

DSM Nutritional Products, Parsippany, N.J., cites a 2011 study in the Journal of Nutrition that said 90% of American adults do not consume the recommended 15 mg of vitamin E per day from food. Epidemiological studies indicate maintaining serum a-tocopherol may help maintain reproductive, brain and liver function, said Michael McBurney, vice-president, scientific communications and advocacy at DSM.

Vitamin E may be added to grain-based foods through a powder premix blend or an oil-based liquid blend, Dr. Hazen said.

“Each of these options changes the development approach and can dramatically impact the ease of use in the manufacturing environment where the finished product is being made,” he said.

The Choline Information Council, Escondido, Calif., cites Gallup research from 2013 showing only 15% of Americans are aware of choline. Yet data from the 2007-08 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey found 90% of the U.S. population did not consume enough choline.

Choline is important for fetal development, cognitive function, heart health and liver health, according to the Choline Information Council. The Adequate Intake (A.I.) level is 550 mg a day for men and 425 mg a day for women. Liver, eggs and various meats are the richest sources of choline.

Opinions on how easy it is to add choline to products may differ. Ms. Wilkinson said high doses are needed to achieve choline’s A.I. levels, and the higher doses potentially could affect how a product tastes or looks.

“Now it’s not that easy to fortify with,” she said. “So you need to be willing to work with it.”

Dr. Hazen said choline commonly is added as either choline bitartrate or choline chloride.

“Choline is relatively stable in many applications and has a minimal impact on the flavor of the finished good,” he said.