Clean label ingredient considerations
The Center for Science in the Public Interest, Washington, has developed four tiers of ingredients in recommending priorities for clean label formulations:
Tier 1: Ingredients that have major health concerns due to the excessive amounts consumed and the number of people affected. Sugar and salt added to food are examples.
Tier 2:Ingredients that pose a small risk of serious adverse effects. Artificial colorings/synthetic dyes Blue 1, Blue 2, Green 3, Red 3, Red 40, Yellow 5 and Yellow 6 are examples. Other tier 2 ingredients include artificial flavorings identified as carcinogens; artificial sweeteners acesulfame potassium, aspartame, saccharine and sucralose; artificial preservatives BHA, nitrate/nitrite, propyl gallate and TBHQ; partially hydrogenated vegetable oil; and the meat substitute mycoprotein (Quorn).
Tier 3:Ingredients that have a slight or possible risk of serious adverse effects. Artificial and natural flavorings, artificial caramel coloring, BHT, azodicarbonamide (ADA), bromated flour, potassium bromate, calcium bromate, brominated vegetable oil, polysorbates, olestra, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), carrageenan and phosphoric acid/phosphates are tier 3 ingredients.
Tier 4: Poorly tested substances and those that may have other safety issues, including allergic or hypersensitivity reactions. They include annatto, cochineal extract/carmine, benzoic acid/sodium benzoate, diacetyl, autolyzed yeast extract, hydrolyzed vegetable protein, monosodium glutamate (MSG), quinine, monk fruit extract, sulfites, sodium bisulfite and sulfur dioxide. Gums in tier 4 include acacia/Arabic, guar and xanthan.